- The potential importance of aquaculture to pacific islands
- Why Funding Coconut Farms in the South Pacific with UK Aid Is Actually Critically Important
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The potential importance of aquaculture to pacific islands
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Why Funding Coconut Farms in the South Pacific with UK Aid Is Actually Critically Important
Destructive fishing methods have compounded the problem by degrading some habitats to the point where they cannot support the valuable species McManus, Pacific Island countries now recognize that aquaculture provides one of the few long-term, sustainable, ways of deriving benefits from inshore fisheries resources Williams, This view of aquaculture as a priority area for continued sustainable development was reinforced as part of a consensus member country statement arising from the 2nd SPC Fisheries Management Workshop in This is supported by a strategy to divert demand and fishing pressure to alternative activities, mostly to offshore fishing and into aquaculture.
Aquaculture, as an alternative activity, is still at a preliminary stage of economic development in most PIC3, but is of enormous future significance. For aquaculture to realise its full potential to the economies of PIC in a sustainable way will require a considerable degree of international support. PIC have endorsed a strategy to harness and prioritise such support at the regional institutional level. Although the attributes listed above confer many advantages on the region for development of aquaculture and stock enhancement, there are also several constraints to such enterprises in the Pacific.
Many of these have been identified previously by Uwate and Kunatuba , Munro and Bell and Gervis Profitable aquaculture of penaeid shrimps and blacklip pearl oysters has now been established in some areas of the Pacific by commercial interests. Stand-alone enterprises producing penaeid shrimps for export markets are firmly established in New Caledonia and Fiji and were so in Solomon Islands until recently.
These enterprises are applying technology developed originally in Japan, Taiwan Province of China and France, and now common place throughout the tropics. A large, sustainable, industry for culturing pearls using the blacklip pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera has been established in the Tuamotu Archipelago, French Polynesia, and on a couple of atolls in the Cook Islands Fassler, Black pearl farming in French Polynesia and Cook Islands, and shrimp aquaculture in New Caledonia represented more than 98 percent of the total value of aquaculture production estimated in Table 1.
In some places, e. Kiribati, development is based on spat produced in hatcheries, whereas in others, e. Solomon Islands, development is geared towards finding ways that coastal villagers can catch and grow wild spat Friedman et al. Current research is concentrating on assessing the economic viability of pearl farming in Solomon Islands, Fiji and Kiribati, and comparing growth, survival and pearl quality of oysters derived from wild and hatchery-reared spat.
Several of these countries also have the capacity to produce giant clams for the sashimi market in Okinawa, and as a live product for markets in China, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and Taiwan Province of China Bell et al. Research has commenced to assess the viability of producing sea cucumbers in hatcheries for enhancement of wild stocks. There are three steps in this process: Currently, the focus is on development of methods for the mass rearing of Holothuria scabra, H.
Initial research on H. Production of the marine alga Kappaphycus is well established by coastal villagers in Kiribati and Fiji, and sponges are being cultured in the Federated States of Micronesia. Milkfish are being cultured as live bait for the tuna industry in Guam, and there is considerable interest in this activity by several other countries.
Whilst prospects for inland aquaculture are limited by geography, the custom of communal tenure of coastal marine areas may be. Production statistics for aquaculture, as might be expected from what is currently a minor, semi-subsistence activity, are almost nonexistent for the Pacific Islands. The exceptions are for black pearl farming in eastern Polynesia, and shrimp aquaculture in New Caledonia and a few other islands. The following summary is mainly non-quantitative. Aquaculture is currently focused on giant clams Tridacna derasa, T.
In , 30 subsistence-level farmers participated in a programme of growing-out clams each provided by a public sector-supported hatchery Clarke, , personal communication. There are few freshwater bodies, but small lakes on three islands contain introduced eels and tilapia not cultured though. Blacklip pearl culture started in the early s at Manihiki; there were 50 farms in and over 90 in Farming has now expanded to Tongareva and a government hatchery is there.
A government hatchery for giant clam and trochus has existed on Aitutaki for 10 years, but is not currently commercially sustainable G.
Matutu, , unpublished data. In spite of numerous trials and projects conducted since the s, there are no sustained commercial or subsistence aquaculture operations at present Itimai, Sponge culture exists on a small scale. Aquaculture was first started in , when tilapia were introduced as a protein source for pig farming. The first directed efforts occurred after the United States Peace Corps and a JICA project assisted the Fiji government in developing freshwater aquaculture methods in the s. Varied success was achieved with shrimp, Kappaphycus, oyster, mussel, Macrobrachium, carp and tilapia, but now major investment is promoted by the government through a Commodity Development Fund.
Currently, there are three shrimp farms and hatchery; 20 milkfish ponds for longline bait; and one industrial, seven commercial and subsistence farms and six hatcheries that produced mt of tilapia in Eucheuma cottonii is cultured by a total of farms, producing an estimated 1 mt in Experimental pearl farming is conducted, and there is one commercial farm that has been operating for two decades. Ledua, , unpublished data. There was an increasing trend in annual aquaculture production between and Clarke, The potential for the development of other species giant clams, top shell, striped mullet and groupers is being explored by Guam-based research facilities.
Eighty hectares of mikfish ponds, originally set up to provide livebait for tuna pole-and-lining, have been operating for several decades. Kappaphycus alvarezii has been cultured in the Phoenix, Line and Gilbert groups for 15 years. Tekinaiti, , unpublished data. There is currently no aquaculture, but investigations have been conducted on the feasibility of a giant clam and trochus hatchery. Milkfish been farmed for at least one century, but competition from introduced tilapia O.
It has recently been revived, with O. Alefaio, , unpublished data. Aquaculture is limited to raising penaeid shrimp and tilapia Clarke, Annual production is estimated at 1 kg for marine shrimp, kg for freshwater prawns and 4 kg for tilapia. There are fewer than three commercial farms. Shrimp production achieved 1 mt for the first time in Labrosse et al. About 45 mt of oysters Crassostrea gigas are produced for the local market.
Experimental culture of local oyster and giant clam is also in progress Etaix-Bonnin, The Micronesian Mariculture Demonstration Centre pioneered giant clam culture, as well as trochus and soft corals. Aquaculture started 40 years ago, with several aquaculture stations along the coast and highlands to encourage subsistence culture, mainly of Cyprinus carpio. There are carp farms in operation. Trout were introduced in the s, and the Kotuni Trout Farm was in operation from There are three newer farms, but only two are currently operating, with a production of 15 mt.
A hatchery was started in Pinctada margaritifera farming for black pearls is major industry. In the past, culture systems for mussel, shrimp, barramundi and oyster have been developed. Seaweed, giant clam, green mussel and redclaw farming were also tried.
A new national economic strategy promotes aquaculture, and this is being actively developed by the current AusAID village fisheries extension project using tilapia, mullet and giant clam A. Mulipola, , unpublished data. There are two shrimp farms and several village-based enterprises rearing giant clams and hard corals for the aquarium trade and a demonstration black pearl farm in the Western Province. The ICLARM Coastal Aquaculture Centre has also developed methods for the propagation of sandfish Holothuria scabra and the capture and culture of wild postlarval coral reef fish for the aquarium trade.
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Oreihaka, , unpublished data , but the future of the aquaculture-oriented Institute of Marine Resources of the University of the South Pacific is uncertain. Aquaculture was first attempted in with the polyculture of tilapia and milkfish. From , various trials were conducted on shellfish oyster, mussel, pearl oyster ; these lapsed but Pteria penguin was established in the wild and may form the basis for later pearl culture. Crassostrea gigas was introduced in the s. There was a short-lived Macrobrachium rosenbergii farm at Santo from , and tilapia from New Caledonia were cultured during the early s at Efate.
Giant clam spawning has just started.
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There is no commercial aquaculture K. Pakoa, , unpublished data. Some of the best opportunities for development of aquaculture in the Pacific are in the aquarium trade and live seafood markets e. Initiatives by FAO, the World Fish Center ICLARM , the Center for Tropical and Subtropical Aquaculture CTSA and bilateral donors have concentrated on establishing the culture of pearl oysters outside eastern Polynesia, developing small-scale aquaculture enterprises for other species, and providing basic training in aquaculture and stock enhancement to fisheries staff in several of the countries.
These methods and techniques should be simple and flexible enough to be easily adapted to the context of the Pacific Islands environment and to the constraints of local and export markets. This approach should promote systems integrating fisheries and mariculture, with low cost methods of production. This should be associated with pilot commercial scale operations to test and demonstrate the economic viability of the methods proposed.
This will need research coupled with assistance, training and education programmes. Under this strategy, SPC will be the regional focal point for aquaculture and willconvene regular meetings of island nations to identify needs, determine priorities and put organisations and individuals in touch with each other. ICLARM will undertake long-term research to devise and test economically and environmentally sustainable methods for restocking, stock enhancement and farming; and USP will developdegree and diploma course components and aquaculture vocational training, and contribute to research through higher degree programmes.
The other functions necessary for the expansion of sustainable aquaculture in the region, e. This Pacific Islands Regional Aquaculture Strategy represents an opportunity to reinforce inter-regional cooperation based on research, training and information exchanges including cooperation through NACA with Southeast Asian countries. It may promote more investment from Asia and better conditions for access to Asian markets.
Coastal fisheries and marine development issues for small islands.
Islands for Sale in South Pacific
A roadmap for the future for fisheries and conservation, p. Aquaculture resource development country statement: Nadi, Fiji, th March Present and future of aquaculture research and development in the Pacific, Proceedings of the International Workshop, Ministry of Fisheries, Tonga, November Potential of the tropical Indo-Pacific sea cucumber, Holothuria scabra, for stock enhancement. Oxford, Blackwell Science, pp Bell, J.
Transfer of technology on marine ranching to small island states. Global perspectives with emphasis on the Japanese experience. Oxford, Blackwell Science, pp New species for coastal aquaculture in the tropical Pacific - constraints, prospects and considerations. Can aquaculture help restore and sustain production of giant clams? Developing and sustaining world fisheries resources: Culture, handling and air transport of giant clams from the South Pacific. Marketing and shipping live aquatic products, p. Coastal fisheries in the Pacific Islands.
Survival and growth of juvenile fluted giant clams, Tridacna squamosa, in large-scale village grow-out trials in the Solomon Islands.
Availability of wild spat of the blacklip pearl oyster, Pinctada margaritifera, from open reef systems in Solomon Islands. Growth and survival of the giant clams Tridacna derasa, T. Aquaculture resource development in the Federated States of Micronesia. In Aquaculture resource development in Pacific Islands: Seas at the millennium, Elsevier, Amsterdam. Negative impacts of coastal tropical aquaculture developments.