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A potage is a category of thick soups, stews , or porridges , in some of which meat and vegetables are boiled together with water until they form into a thick mush. Bisques are heavy cream soups traditionally prepared with shellfish , but can be made with any type of seafood or other base ingredients. Cream soups are a dairy based soup. Although they may be consumed on their own, or with a meal, the canned, condensed form of cream soup is sometimes used as a quick sauce in a variety of meat and pasta convenience food dishes, such as casseroles.
Similar to a bisque, chowders are thick soups usually containing some type of starch. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. List of stews and Category: This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. You can help by expanding it with reliably sourced entries. Soups portal Food portal Culture portal Lists portal. Retrieved July 30, The Italian Vegetable Cookbook. Essentials of Classic Italian Cooking.
Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Retrieved 12 September Life and Food in an Italian Valley. Sophia University Institute of Comparative Culture: Discover Singapore on Foot. The Indonesian meatball soup President Obama loved as a child". Retrieved 30 January Roast Chicken and Other Stories.
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It has been described as an ancient dish. Bulgur meatballs and chickpeas in gravy with yogurt. Consists of yogurt and leafy vegetables. Chicken broth , rice or orzo , and lemon, thickened with tempered eggs. Bacon , vegetables, and a thickening agent. Pictured is celery and bacon soup. Malaysia  and Singapore. Consists of meaty pork ribs simmered in a complex broth of herbs and spices including star anise , cinnamon , cloves , dang gui , fennel seeds and garlic for hours.
Meatball noodle soup in rich beef broth , sometimes include bok choy , noodles, tofu, hard-boiled egg, fried shallots and wontons. Stewed or red braised beef , beef broth, vegetables and Chinese noodles. It exists in various forms throughout East Asia and Southeast Asia , and is popular as a Chinese and Taiwanese noodle soup. Recipe from the middle ages using heated beer and pieces of bread ;  though other ingredients were also used. Coconut milk , fruits and tapioca pearls, served hot but sometimes chilled.
Edible bird's nest , an expensive delicacy valued for its unusual texture. Cabbage and beet -based soup with meat. One of very few soups that can be enjoyed hot or cold. A national Ukrainian and Polish without cabbage but with mushrooms, served on the Christams Eve dish. Sliced meat, potatoes, sliced plantains , yam, kelp, cabbage, and celery. Traditionally prepared on Saturdays. Stale bread in a broth. The Netherlands and Indonesia. Kidney bean soup served in pig's trotters broth, spiced with shallot , garlic , salt , sugar , pepper , nutmeg and clove.
Mixed with chopped green beans , celery and scallion. Lamb or beef steak, parsnips , carrots , leeks , bouquet garni , Madeira wine ; popular in England during the Victorian and Edwardian eras. Cabbage soup , kapusniak , kapustnica , zelnacka. Conger eel heads, garlic , onion , coriander , carrots , pepper , chopped tomatoes, cream, boiled potatoes, and conger meat.
Seafood, hake , garlic , olive oil , lemons , and Seville oranges. Taro leaf or other leafy greens, usually with pork or crab added for flavor. The greens referred to as callaloo vary from island to island depending on availability. A fish soup from southern Vietnam, made sour with tamarind.
Carp's head and offal , onion and vegetable. Part of traditional Czech Christmas Eve dinner. Prepared with carrot as a primary ingredient, it can be prepared as a cream-style soup   and as a broth -style soup. Clear broth, rice, potato, squash or pumpkin, corn and chicken or beef. Eaten in South America and Spain , it combines native and introduced ingredients. Pictured is an Ecuadorian cazuela. Chicken, stock, noodles, such as egg noodles. Made from chicken that's simmered with various other ingredients. Pictured is southern Chinese style chicken soup with mushrooms and corn.
Beetroot or sometimes tomato , popular in Eastern Europe. A Lithuanian specialty, usually made in summer time in two varieties, hot and cold. Both are based on beets, but are otherwise prepared and served differently. United States New England. Broccoli , stock, and milk or cream as primary ingredients.
Soup made with split yellow lentils and spices. It is a Konkani staple that is often served over rice. Clear fish stock made with kombu sea kelp and katsuobushi smoked bonito flakes. Dashi broth is often used as a base for miso soup and other Japanese soup broths. The dish consists of ingredients such as duck meat in hot soup with mixed herbs and Bee sua served in particular at Penang hawker centres.
Savory soup made by red lentil, bulgur, onion, garlic, salt, olive oil, black pepper, hot pepper and peppermint. Deep, rich broth made with onions and beef. Often topped with croutons and gruyere cheese melted golden on top, over the edges of the bowl. Fufu and Egusi soup. Vegetables, meat, fish, and balls of ground melon seed. Fish stock, often concentrated and used as a base for sauces, and usually made with fish heads and bones. Italy Lucca , Tuscany , central Italy. Primary ingredients include chicken or vegetable stock or broth , asparagus, artichoke hearts, fava beans , peas, onion and meats, such as pancetta and veal.
Method of cooking using coconut milk. If unavailable, substitute with sour cream. Custard filling for pastries and cakes. To cook en crepinette is to wrap in caul fat. A crepinette is usually a small patty of meat wrapped in caul fat, not unlike a rissole. A French toasted or pan-fried ham and cheese sandwich. When made with an egg, it is known as a croque madame.
A flavoursome tuber also known as a Chinese artichoke. To cook en croute is to wrap or seal in pastry. Solid which separates from coagulated milk or soy milk used to make cheese or soya bean curd. Japanese long white radish. An oval-shaped mould used for baking and pastry. A soy sauce often used for the colour it imparts.
It's less salty than light soy sauce. Japanese fish stock made from dried seaweed. A French braise of beef, mutton or lamb enriched with red wine and onions. Style of potato dish in which they're thinly sliced and baked with cream, milk and sometimes cheese. Loosening and dissolving meat residue from the pan base or roasting dish with water, wine or stock. A tasting or sampling menu, typically of several smaller courses. Light brown sugar with coarse crystals.
Japanese style of cooking grilled skewered food with a sweet miso paste. Indian dish of cooked dehusked split pulses such as lentils seasoned with spices. French term for an after-dinner drink. Often strongly alcoholic as in the case of Cognac or eau-de-vie , they are supposed to aid digestion. The Italian term is digestivo. French mustard with a smooth creamy consistency and a mild flavour made with brown mustard seeds, salt, spices and verjuice.
Cantonese term denoting both a style of morning or midday meal also known as yum cha and the small dishes served at that meal to accompany tea. Steamed and fried dumplings, both sweet and sour, are among the best-known dim sum dishes. Greek dish using vine leaves to wrap a filling of rice or meat and other vegetables.
These small sun-dried prawns are soaked in hot water or pounded to a paste before using. Minced mushrooms and shallots cooked in butter and mixed with cream. French for water of life - fruit-based brandy. Japanese prawn eaten raw in sushi. English puff pastry cases traditionally filled with raisins. Green soy bean pods, usually bought frozen and boiled and salted to be eaten as a snack. Custard made from whole egg or yolk and sweetened milk and cooked gently over a bain marie or double boiler. White flowers of the elderberry tree used for decoration, fried, or made into a sweet cordial. Hard cooked-curd cow's milk cheese from the Emmental valley in Switzerland with a sweet nutty flavour.
South American sweet or savoury pastries often containing meat, vegetables or cheese. These can be prepared by baking or shallow frying. Combining of two separate substances by adding small amounts of one into the other. Bitter salad plant with curly ragged leaves. Japanese mushroom with delicate long stems and small white gold caps. A strongly flavoured cow's milk cheese from the town of the same name in Burgundy.
A Meditteranean way of preparing fish, in which they're lightly cooked and then marinated in oil and vinegar. Thin slice of meat cut from a large muscle beaten thin prior to cooking. Also known as spelt barley. Available from select delicatessens and David Jones Food Halls. Sheep's or goat's milk are the traditional base for this salty, crumbly cheese, giving the cheese a more complex taste.
It is often stored in brine; if so, rinse it before using to remove some of the saltiness. En feuilletage means in pastry. French for string, it can refer to a dish of beef suspended in broth on a string and poached boeuf a la ficelle , or a kind of small, skinny baguette. A small rectangular French almond cake. A mix of fresh herbs, usually parsley, chervil, thyme, chives and tarragon. The amount of time the taste of a wine lingers on your palate after you've swallowed it.
Unless it's unbalanced or harsh, a good length or finish is generally taken to be a sign of a good wine. Also known as length. A small pale dried bean. The flower of salt, a fine sea salt from France. Also oeufs a la neige. In contemporary restaurant usage, this means a sauce brought to a foamy consistency, typically under pressure from a whipped cream siphon in the manner popularised by pioneering chef Ferran Adria of Spain's El Bulli restaurant.
Most foams contain gelatin or agar-agar to stabilise them. The fattened liver of a duck de canard or goose d'ois. French for melting, in pastry it can refer to cooked, worked, flavoured sugar used in icing or high-cocoa chocolate. A blue-veined French cow's milk cheese from the Auvergne. Almond custard pastry filling. Bone ends cleaned of meat: A mixture of sauteed ingredients, classically enriched with butter and cream. French for fruits of the sea; seafood. Rhizome broadly resembling ginger in shape but with a pink-hued skin.
The flesh is more dense and fibrous than ginger, while the flavour is more delicate. Chop finely or slice thinly before use. In classical French cooking, a bird or large cut of meat which has been boned, stuffed, rolled an cooked before being glazing with gelatin, and is typically served cold. A flat round of pastry or cake. A southwestern French stew or rich soup of loose definition which often includes cabbage, beans, preserved duck and pork.
Green garlic sprouts, or shoots as they are sometimes called, are sold in bunches and resemble garlic chives but are thicker and rounder. French for jelly, or a dish set in jelly. Small gnocchi-like dried pasta shapes used in Sardinian cooking. Also known as malloreddus. Italian plural for 'little dumplings', typically of mashed potatoes, but also of semolina gnocchi alla romana , pumpkin and even sweet gnocchi of a choux paste base.
See also gnocchetti Sardi. Korean chilli bean paste, available from Asian supermarkets. Sometimes known as shallot UK or scallion US ; an immature onion pulled when the top is green, before the bulb has formed. Sold by the bunch. Varying in length and shape, it is used in Thai cuisines raw and cooked. An Italian preparation of finely chopped lemon sometimes orange peel, raw garlic and flat-leaf parsley used to cut the riches of braises such as osso buco alla Milanese.
French sauce of chopped capers, hard-boiled eggs, cornichons and herbs bound with mayonnaise. Commonly served with cold meats or poached dishes. By far the hottest of the commonly available chillies, the orange habanero or bonnet pepper has a fruity taste and a lingering, white-hot burn. It is advisable to wear rubber gloves while preparing them in any great number and to wash your hands and utensils after handling them.
Salted and smoked small cod. Scottish dish of sheep's stomach stuffed with minced heart, liver, lungs and oats then poached or boiled. Middle-Eastern sweet made from ground sesame seeds or almonds with sugar syrup. Shelled and dried mature French bean. A fiery north African condiment usually made from dried chillies, garlic, olive oil and cumin.
Refrigerate for up to two months, covered in a layer of oil to help preserve it. Semi-hard scalded-curd cows milk cheese. A mixture of rosemary, thyme, parsley, summer savoury and bay, typically dried. A commercial brand of farmed yellowtail kingfish produced in South Australia and noted for its high oil content. Japanese use of flounder or halibut in sushi. A classic base sauce of butter and lemon juice thickened with egg yolks over gentle heat. Paired with eggs and ham on muffins to make eggs Benedict.
Tripe from the second stomach of cattle, with the appearance of honeycomb. Middle Eastern puree of cooked chickpeas, tahini, lemon juice and garlic. A small-leafed Meditteranean herb with a slightly bitter, mint-like flavour. Bringing liquid into contact with food, herbs or spices so that the flavour transposes from one to the other. The plural is insalate. Smaller, whiter and quicker to cook than regular barley. You can substitute with regular pearl barley, but you will need to cook it for 45 minutes. Japanese soft noodles made from udon noodles bolied and then fried with vegetables and served with condiments.
Malaysian fruit with brown spiky skin, fibrous yellow flesh and large white seeds, the flesh is eaten raw or roasted and the seeds are dried, roasted and ground. Long, tapering thick-fleshed green chillies with strong flavour and middling heat. Ripe, they can be dark green or red. Creole long grain rice dish with varied ingredients such as chicken, ham, sausage and seafood with onions, celery, green pepper and tabasco. See also serrano and jamon Iberico. A Spanish ham widely regarded as the world's best, jamon Iberico de bellota, to use its full name, is the cured leg of a black Iberian pig fattened on grain and then foraged on acorns bellota in Spanish in the months before slaughter.
The hams are cured for a minimum of nine months. Mix of chopped nori, sesame seeds, caster sugar, sansho pepper and sea salt, available from Japanese and Asian food stores. Colourless vinegar made from fermented rice and seasoned with sugar and salt. Also known as seasoned rice vinegar. Otherwise known as sake, an alcoholic beverage fermented from steamed rice also used as a replacement for mirin in cooking. Technique of cutting vegetables, fruit or citrus rinds into matchstick-sized strips.
French for juice, in restaurant parlance jus usually refers to the pan juices from a piece of meat used to sauce it on the plate. Two glossy dark-green leaves joined end to end; used fresh or dried in many Asian dishes in the same manner as bay or curry leaves, especially in Thai cooking. Sold fresh, dried or frozen; dried leaves are less potent so double the number called for in a recipe if using instead of fresh leaves.
Thin strands of dough, not unlike noodles, common to Greek, Turkish and Lebanese sweets, but latterly used in savoury dishes in contemporary cooking, as in the case of kataifi-wrapped prawns. Meat cooked on a skewer or brochette until lightly charred on the outside and sliced or served on the skewer. Indonesian dark soy sauce sweetened and thickened with molasses. Also known as bonito flakes.
Kidney-shaped bean ranging in colour from white to black. Korean fermented cabbage flavoured with salt, garlic and chilli. An aperitif made by splashing white wine with creme de cassis, the blackcurrant liqueur. Made with Champagne, it's termed a Kir Royale. Alcoholic infusion of cherry and cherry kernels used for drinking or flavouring. Mild Indian braise of meat or vegetables in yoghurt or cream. A yeasted, ring-shaped cake from Alsace.
Strained yoghurt with the consistency of thick sour cream and a mildly acidic taste. Labne is available from some supermarkets and Middle Eastern food stores. To make your own, place thick Greek-style yoghurt in a muslin-lined sieve over a bowl and refrigerate overnight. A spicy Chinese-Malay noodle soup common to many countries in southeast Asia. The type of noodle used varies from country to country, as does the broth laksa assam is piquant with tamarind, while laksa lemak is rich with coconut milk and the ingredients prawns, fish, chicken, tofu and combinations thereof. French for cat's tongues; thin, delicate sweet biscuits.
Dried Chinese pork sausages, usually smoked, seasoned and sweetened. They are available vacuum-packed from Asian food stores and do not require refrigeration until after opening. A meat salad of Lao origins common to Thai cooking, made with minced raw or cooked pork, poultry or fish, and ground rice, flavoured with chilli, fish sauce and lime juice. Also laab, larp, laap. Rendered pork fat, used in cooking as a frying medium, a shortening in baking and as a preservative.
Italian pork backfat cured with salt and spices and eaten raw with other salumi. Indian yoghurt drink salted or sweetened with sugar and flavoured with spices such as cumin or mint. A sweetened almond-milk concentrate from Italy, available from specialty stores such as Simon Johnson. Bread made with yeast to help it rise. A long, slender variety of baby eggplant or aubergine , ranging from pale to dark-purple in colour.
Plants with two pods attached along one join beans and peas. Usually the seed itself is used for eating and when dried they are known as pulses. Grown in tuft-like clusters, with long bladed leaves which contain a pale central stalk, the lower white part of which is either pounded, bruised or finely chopped in South East Asian cuisine.
The leaves are dried and used to make tisanes. Available from Asian food stores and supermarkets. Also known as finish. A large fish of the cod family. A pungent, reddish cow's milk cheese from the French province of Normandy. Lobsters caught in Australian lobsters are spiny lobsters, sometimes called crayfish, but properly known as southern, western, eastern and tropical rock lobsters.
They differ from Atlantic lobsters in the absence of claws, but are otherwise similar if not superior in the quality and characteristics of their flesh. Normally sold live, cooked or frozen, buying uncooked, chilled rock lobster is not advised, as it is hard to know how much time has passed since the lobster died. In the style of Lyon, typically garnished with onions. Also macaron; a small French biscuit made from almonds, sugar and eggwhite.
This spice, the dried lacy covering of the nutmeg seed, tastes and smells like a pungent version of nutmeg. A secondary bacterial fermentation in which a grape's sharp natural acid, malic acid, is replaced by the softer lactic acid. This can occur spontaneously, but many wineries kick off the process with an injection of lactic bacteria. A French eau-de-vie made from grape skins and seeds, like grappa. Italian for the style of the sailor. Not, as is commonly supposed, necessarily seafood, but sauced in the southern Italian manner with tomato, garlic, oregano and olive oil.
The most widely available variety is sweet marjoram. It can be used to flavour a variety of foods, particularly meats such as lamb and veal, and vegetables. A native Australian crayfish Cherax cainii , the third largest crayfish in the world prized for the sweetness and quantity of its meat. Farmed chiefly in South Australia and Western Australia, marron are available fresh year-round, and are black when mature. See also yabby and redclaw. A French confection of peeled chestnuts preserved in sugar. Fresh, smooth, unripened, triple-cream cheese with a rich, slightly acidic taste.
A spicy north African sausage, typically made of lamb, and sometimes beef. To cook a la meuniere, or in the style of the miller's wife, means to bread fish in seasoned flour, fry it in butter and serve with with parsley and lemon. French for a thousand leaves; traditionally puff pastry of many delicate layers, in common restaurant usage it has come to mean an interleaving of ingredients, typically though not always with layers of something crisp such as pastry between each.
The Italian term is mille foglie. Diced carrots, onions and other vegetables used in braises.
Sweet rice wine, used only in cooking. Found in Asian food stores. Sweet sherry is an acceptable substitute. The Japanese name for a paste of cooked, mashed, salted and fermented soy beans and, typically, rice, rye or barley. It is a common ingredient in soups, sauces and dressings. Miso varies in colour; the darker the miso is, the longer it has fermented and the more intense and mature its taste.
Some are sweet, some are salty. Miso keeps for many months refrigerated.
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Italian for mixed, as in affetatto misto, bollito misto or fritto misto - mixed coldcuts, mixed boiled things and mixed fried things, respectively. Feathery, delicate salad green often found in mesclun. A lightly ashed, slightly smoky cow's milk cheese made in the French region of Jura. A saltwater crustacean that broadly resembles clawless, narrow-bodied crab in size and shapeThe Moreton Bay bug Thenus orientalis , caught in the northern states of Australia, is slightly narrower than the Balmain bug and has eyes towards the edge of the head.
Available year-round, Moreton Bay bugs have full-flavoured meat in their tails, and are bought whole or as frozen tail-meat. Ingredients which have been lightened with whipped cream or eggwhite. A strongly scented, tangy, soft cow's milk cheese from the Alsace town of the same name. An aged, sweet fortified wine.
See enoki, oyster, porcini, shiitake and Swiss brown mushroom individual glossary entries. The jars of mostarda seen in Australia usually contain a mixture of fruits pears, quince, cherries and peaches, say , though more single-fruit varieties fig, for instance, or mandarin are becoming available.
Delicatessens and Italian specialty stores are the best source. French for swimming; denotes dishes served in a light, aromatic poaching liquor. Thai relishes made from spices, herbs and chilli, with ingredients such as dried shrimps, garlic, fish sauce, brown sugar, shallots, tamarind, lime juice and peanuts. Soft cakes made with adzuki bean paste. Indonesian fried rice with soy sauce, spring onion, garlic,and vegetables, often served with chicken or seafood. A Malaysian dish of rice cooked in coconut milk, served with ikan biliis crisp anchovies , boiled egg, peanuts, cucumber, sambal and aceh pickles.
It's often accompanied by a curry or grilled fish or chicken. A French braise of lamb or mutton. Small black seeds of the nigella plant with a mild peppery flavour often used as a seasoning. AKA Botrytis cinerea - is a fungus that attacks grapes under certain climatic conditions damp, foggy mornings followed by warm, sunny afternoons. Chinese, Malaysian and Singaporean cuisine. Paper-thin sheets of dried seaweed, ranging in colour from dark green to black.
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Nori has a sweet ocean taste and is generally used for wrapping sushi and rice balls however, when finely cut, it serves as a seasoning or garnish. Sweets made from nuts and sugar with honey and egg whites. A Vietnamese fish sauce made from liquid drained from fermenting fish such as anchovies. The traditional wood used to produce the casks used for ageing fine wines.
Oeufs a la neige.
Poached eggs in a red wine sauce. Broadly, the edible internal organs of an animal, such as tripe, liver, sweetbreads, brains and kidneys. Other definitions include any edible parts of the beast that aren't muscle, including extremities such as feet, ears, snouts, tails and lips, as well as tendons and skin many of these last ingredients, incidentally, can be found in the average commercially produced Australian meat pie.
Made from ripened olives. Extra virgin and virgin are the first and second press, respectively, of the olives and therefore considered the best, while extra light or light is diluted and refers to taste, not fat levels.
Also known as the queen olive and the Sevillano, is a firm, plump green olive. Because of its large size, the gordal is a favourite before the meal, especially when served with cocktails. Green vibrant green, large, fleshy olives prepared in the traditional Sicilian manner, using water and Mediterranean sea salt, giving them a subtle, buttery olive flavour and meaty texture.
They contain no artificial ingredients or preservatives and must be refrigerated and used within a few days of purchase. The French term for a cut of beef which hangs from the last rib of the beast, by the kidneys, resembling flank steak.
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Known also as hanger steak or butcher's steak, though tougher than most grilling cuts, it's prized by beef aficionados for its strong, almost offal-like flavour. As there is only one onglet per carcass, it can be hard to find, and is best ordered ahead from specialist butchers. Alcoholic extract from Seville orange flowers used as a flavouring.
Food which has been grown without the use of synthetic or chemically produced fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides on land which has been organic for at least two years. Fished from waters off northern Spain, only the largest grade of anchovy is preserved whole in rock salt and cured for four months, resulting in plump meaty fillets. Trimmed and filleted by hand, the hairy texture of lesser-grade anchovies is eliminated.
Italian barley- or rice-shaped pasta used in soups. Also known as risoni. In Australia, this can mean the butchers' term for slices of beef shin on the bone osso buco being Italian for bone with a hole , or the northern Italian braise of the same cut. Osso buco alla Milanese, its most famous form, sees the white-wine braised shin sprinkled with gremolata and served on a risotto enriched with saffron. Greek aniseed-flavoured liquor used for flavouring in cooking.
Generally considered to be a wine fault. Oxidation will dull and flatten the fruity flavours of a wine. Also called shimeji in Japanese, this mushroom takes its name from its shape and greyish colour, and has slight peppery overtones and a juicy texture. Chinese sauce combining soy sauce and dried oysters. Typically sauteed in olive oil until they blister or briefly deep-fried, then simply salted and served as is, they've got a reputation as the 'Russian roulette' chilli: Now grown in Queensland, they're available fresh from specialist greengrocers from November to May.
Dark and light palm sugar are made from the sap of the sugar palm tree. Dark palm sugar is also known as nam tan pip, jaggery, jawa or gula melaka. It is usually sold in rock-hard cakes; the sugar is shaved off the cake with a sharp knife though many good Asian palm sugars are softer. Widely used in South-East Asian cuisine in sweet and savoury dishes, it will keep indeterminately at room temperature. A sandwich from Nice which sees a large round roll filled with variations on the theme of black olives, roasted capsicum, tomatoes, garlic, anchovies, onions and olive oil.
Literally 'bathed bread', it's often made well ahead of serving, and should be quite juicy. Italian bacon that is cured with salt and spices but not smoked. Available in both round and flat shapes. To wrap food in parchment or foil to cook it is to cook en papillote in French usage. The Italian equivalent is in cartoccio. A red powdered spice ground from a variety of sweet red capsicum. There are many types and grades, including smoked, hot, mild and sweet. Traditionally a dessert mousse, but also a mousse-like puree of duck, chicken or goose liver resembling a fine pate. Also known as parmigiano, parmesan is a hard, grainy cow milk cheese which originated in the Parma region of Italy.
The curd is salted in brine for a month, then aged for up to two years in humid conditions. A French anise-flavoured alcohol, such as Pernod or Ricard, traditionally served as an aperitif. Bottled as clear liquids, they become cloudy when ice or water is added. French for paving stone, on a menu this usually means a thick slice of meat. Dry, sharp, salty, Italian sheep's milk cheese. Made from grapes with the same name, this dark, rich Spanish sherry is full-bodied and very sweet.
Used as a dessert wine, it's also great for sauces and deglazing a pan. Method of removing small bones from fish fillets, using tweezers. Derived from the pine cones of several varieties of pine trees. Generally to harvest the nuts, the cones must be heated. This labour-intensive process is the reason pine nuts are expensive. There are two main varieties. The Mediterranean or Italian nut is torpedo-shaped, has a light, delicate flavour and is the more expensive of the two. The Chinese pine nut is more triangular and has a pungent flavour.
Pine nuts are often toasted gently in a pan or the oven before use to bring out their flavour. Because of their high fat content, these nuts become rancid easily. Store in an airtight container in the refrigerator for no more than three months or freeze for up to nine months. A Basque dish of sauteed capsicum, tomatoes and onions, often served with eggs or ham. A middling sized mild red Spanish pepper, wood-roasted and peeled by hand, they're a specialty of the region of Navarra, and are sold packed in their own juice in jars or tins at delis and specialty stores.
A pizza-like savoury tart from Nice topped with anchovies, onions and black olives. It takes its name from pissalat, an anchovy-based Nicoise condiment. Pale green, delicately flavoured nut inside hard, off-white shells. To peel, soak shelled nuts in boiling water for five minutes and then rub the skins off with your fingers. Traditionally a French puff pastry filled with almond cream from the Loire Valley town of the same name. In contemporary restaurant use, pretty much anything served in a round or sphere of pastry; often a fancy way of saying 'pie'.
List of soups
Spanish for hotplate; dishes cooked on it are labelled 'a la plancha'. A variety of pear, but also a clear French pear brandy made from the same fruit. Yellow or white coarse granular meal made from corn. Made from the juice of pomegranate seeds boiled down to a thick syrup. Available from select delicatessens and grocers, and Middle Eastern food stores. An Italian term for a suckling pig, boned, stuffed rosemary, fennel seed, garlic and plenty of salt usually feature and roasted, often in a wood-fired oven.
It is served both hot and cold. Italian name for a prized boletus mushroom known to French cooks as cepes , it is uncommon in its fresh form in Australia, but readily available dried from delis and specialty stores. Like other dried mushrooms, porcini must be softened in hot water for 20 minutes before use. Long knobbly waxy potatoes ideal for boiling, roasting and pan-frying. Also known as fingerling potatoes. Creamy, firm-textured potato with yellow flesh and skin.
Suits boiling, mashing or roasting. Brown skinned, white fleshed potato. Suitable for boiling, baking, frying and particularly good for mashing. Brown skinned, yellow fleshed potato. Suitable for baking, frying, mashing and roasting, but not for boiling. A traditional French dish of beef and vegetables gently poached or simmered together, the meat and the broth usually served as separate courses, with mustard and cornichons among the condiments.
Bollito misto is a loose Italian equivalent. Also called fresh or pure cream, pouring cream contains no additives and has a fat content of 35 per cent. Lemons preserved in salt and lemon juice. A common ingredient in North African cooking, available from specialty food stores and select greengrocers. There are two types of pressed rice, poha or puha, available. The smaller one resembles desiccated coconut and needs to be soaked for two minutes before use. The larger one is the size of flattened grains of rice and needs to be soaked for at least five minutes.
Primary and secondary aromas. Young wines are said to show primary aromas, while mature wines display secondary aromas. As a rule, primary aromas tend to be simple, fruity ones with or without oak influence , while secondary aromas can range from dried fruit to leather, beef stock and petrol. White wine grape that is grown primarily in the eastern part of Italy's Veneto region. Prosecco is made into light sparkling, full sparkling and still wines. The wines are crisp and appley and, though they can be sweet, are more often dry. In the style of the southern French region of Provence: This semi-hard stretched curd cheese is made from cow's milk and comes from Lombardy, Italy.
Made in various shapes and sizes, the most common are cylindrical or pear shapes. They are bound with rope and have a bright yellow, waxy rind. Younger cheeses are smaller, sweeter and mild flavoured, whereas larger cheeses are matured for at least two years and have a strong flavour. The small eggs of a young hen. Available from supermarkets, sold as eggs for children.
Arabian spice blend of ground peppercorns, cloves, nutmeg and cinnamon used in meat and vegetable dishes. A small game bird, usually readily available from David Jones Food Halls and specialty butchers. A classic French spice blend of ground ginger, nutmeg, cloves and white pepper, often used in baking and sweets. A traditional British pudding of baked, breadcrumb-thickened custard layered with jam and meringue. Portuguese semi-hard high fat cheese. A poached skinless, fine-textured French dumpling, usually of fish, poultry or veal. Savoury custard tart made from shortcrust or puff pastry.
Cinnamon bark rolled up into a cigar-like tube. A relative of the apple and pear, this large fragrant, lumpy yellow fruit has very hard, astringent flesh which, cooked long and slow with sugar, fruit juice or other sweeteners, develops a fine flavour and soft, pink flesh. Though their season is relatively short, they keep for some weeks unrefrigerated.
A grain native to South America. Gluten-free, with a nutty flavour and high in protein, it has latterly been dubbed a superfood. It's available from health food stores, and can be used in breads, salads, soups and stews. A Swiss unpasteurised cow's milk cheese, and also the name of dish of the same cheese served melted under a grill with potatoes, pickles and various condiments. Member of the chicory family used in Italian cooking as well as salads. Radicchio has attractive red leaves with a bitter flavour.
French term for a thick stew, usually of meat. Pronounced rag-OO, its Italian equivalent is ragu. Dried white muscatel or seedless Thompson grapes. Combined chopped vegetables, often apple or cucumber, in a thick creamy yoghurt flavoured with spices such as cumin and coriander and served as an accompaniment to meats, curries or vegetables.
Means 'head of the shop'. A traditional blend of Moroccan spices, showcasing the best spices a merchant might have for sale. It can include paprika, cumin, ginger, orris root, saffron, dried flowers, ginger, turmeric, fennel and bay leaf. A southern French classic of eggplant, zucchini, tomatoes, onions, capsicum, garlic and olive oil cooked together and served either hot or cold.
A French sauce of vinegar, white wine and shallots, much like a thick vinaigrette. A filled pasta, typically consisting of two sheets of pasta pressed together to contain a mixture of meat, cheese or vegetables in a square or circular package. Raviolo is the singular form. The opposite process to oxidation, in which a wine is deprived of oxygen. It can give a wine a whiff of overboiled cabbage. While there's little you can do to improve an oxidised wine, a bit of aeration should get rid of reductive odours.
A French condiment of celery or shredded celeriac with mayonnaise, capers, mustard, cornichons and herbs. Soft white cow's milk cheese; roughly translates as 'cooked again'. Is made from whey, a by-product of other cheese making, to which fresh milk and acid are added. Ricotta is a sweet, moist cheese with a fat content of around 8. It is used in both savoury and sweet recipes. A French dish of pork, duck or goose meat or rabbit or fish cooked to shreds in fat and served cold as a spread for toast, like a coarse pate. A blue-veined French cheese made with raw sheep's milk.
Its importation has had a chequered history with Australian quarantine and customs. Distillation of rose petals that retains the intense fragrance and flavour of fresh roses. Rose water has been used for centuries in Eastern countries. Available from specialty grocers. The Indian term for bread, it also often indicates the flatbread chapati, and the Indian-derived pancake-like flatbreads common to Indonesian and Malaysian cooking, as well as in the West Indies. An Italian term for a roll, usually a sheet of pasta rolled to contain sweet or savoury ingredients.
Literally, rust, a French condiment essentially mayonnaise with chilli, garlic, bread and fish broth traditionally served with bouillabaisse and other fish soups. A roll; a piece of fish or meat or a pancake used to contain and roll up other ingredients. The Italian equivalent is rotolo.
Butter and flour cooked together to form a paste used to thicken sauces or soups. Dried stigmas from the crocus flower.